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Genetic and PGD

Genética y DGPlupa

The Preimpantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) also known as embryo screening is a tratment that detects chromosomal anomalies in the embryo prior to its implantation in the uterus.

The main advantege of this technique is to analyse the presence of certain genetic deseases in the embryo before transfer  to the uterus, an so there are no undesired pregnancies and no need of aborption as in case or prenatal diagnosis.

An ICSI (Intracytoplasmatic sperm injection) cycle is done to select the embryos that are genetically healthy embryos. With this technique one or two cells are extracted from each embryo and analysed. The embryos recover from this lack and stay in the incubator until day five. Meanwhile the DNA of the cell is hybridized and analysed several chromosomes. Once the analysis is done, the right embryos are selected for transfer or cryopreservation.

PGD PROCEEDINGS

To do the PGD it is necessary to pull one cell out of each embryo obtained by ICSI in one cycle of IVF. Three days after the ovarian puncture and fertilisation of the oocyte by the spermatozoid, that is, when he embyo has between 6 and 8 cells, is when the PGD is done.

First, a hole is made in the outer membrane of the embryo, the zona pellucida, one blastomere or cell is picked up. Then, each cell is subjected to a chromosomal test in the genetics laboratory. The PGD is only carried out by expert embryologists.

In this early stage of embyo development each one ot its cells are totipotent stem cells, that is, they can differentiate in any other type of cell from the human body, up to form a complete organism. That is why the fact of biopsying one cell of the embryo will not affect to its developing and will form a complete human being.